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Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies (See standard 1.OA.6 for a list of mental strategies). By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.

The Understood offers evidence-based strategies that benefit all students, especially those with learning differences and attention issues.