Description: Topic A begins at the concrete level as students use objects to create equal groups, providing a foundation for the construction of arrays in Topic B. In Lesson 1, for example, students are given 12 counters, such as teddy bears, pebbles, or beans, and they are asked to put them into groups of 3, thereby creating 4 equal groups of 3 objects. Students then see that they can manipulate the same number of counters to make 3 equal groups of 4 objects. Finally, they are presented with unequal groups and challenged to make them equal. Lessons 2 and 3 move to the pictorial level, introducing math drawings to represent equal groups. Lesson 3 extends this understanding as students look for and practice a more efficient way to add by bundling.

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