Description: Topic E begins by introducing students to multiplication by 4 through skip-counting objects in array models in Lesson 14. Students revisit the commutative property in Lesson 15, this time modeling commutativity using both arrays and tape diagrams. For example, students might initially draw a 2 × 4 array and a 4 × 2 array. Then, they see 2 bars of equal length, one with 4 equal parts and the other with 2 equal parts. Now, they have arrays that show (2 × 4) = (4 × 2), as well as tape diagrams that reflect the equality. In Lesson 16, students examine the distributive property in greater depth. This lesson introduces the 5 + n pattern as a strategy for finding unknown facts involving 4. For example, students know that 4 × 5 is 20, so 4 × 6 is the same as 20 + 4 more, which totals 24. By Lesson 17, practice of multiplication and division facts is dedicated to modeling the relationship between operations using facts of 4.

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